What To Expect

What’s involved in an eye examination?

Your eye examination consists of a battery of many different tests which the doctor uses to evaluate the prescription and assess the health of your eyes. Some of the testing performed by Dr. Carvalho include:

Medical History 

It is crucial to gain an understanding of the overall, systemic health as many health conditions can affect the eyes (including Diabetes, Hypertension, Thyroid condition and auto-immune disorders). We begin the eye examination by asking you detailed questions about your general health. We also want to know about any prescription or non-prescription medication usage as well as allergies to any medications. We also delve into any family history which can put you at risk for developing eye diseases.

Slit Lamp Examinations

slit lamp eye exam

A slit lamp is a useful high magnified microscope that allows a detailed examination of the various tissues and structures in the eye. This instrument allows our doctors to diagnose such things as early cataracts, conjunctivitis, retinal disease and glaucoma, among other pathologies found in your eyes. In addition, this instrument is essential in assessing fit and follow-up of contact lenses and health of the cornea for contact lens wearers and people who suffer from dry eyes.

Dilated Fundus Examination 

Dilating the pupils with eye drops enables the doctor to have a more thorough health view of the back of your eye. A dilated retinal examination using the slit lamp biomicroscope or a Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope and special lenses allows us to check for retinal and optic nerve disease or abnormalities and evidence of systemic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

Glaucoma Testing 

This test is included in all adult examinations and in children over the age of 12 (and perhaps younger when warranted). Glaucoma is a disease that causes blindness if left untreated. It occurs if the fluid pressure in the eye causes damage to the optic nerve at the back of the eye. Since about 50% of patients are estimated to be unaware of the disease until there is substantial vision loss, it is crucial that the diagnosis is made early on during a routine eye examination. There are three tests which we use to diagnose glaucoma: 

  • Tonometry: measuring the pressure inside your eye.
  • Examination of the optic nerve (which connects to your brain) through the slit lamp and/or retinal imaging technology.
  • Visual field testing.

Visual Field Testing 

Visual Field Testing

A measure of someone’s central and peripheral vision. It is routinely done to assess glaucoma, retinal disease as well as other neurological conditions which can affect peripheral vision. It is also required for some drivers with suspected visual impairment or who require special classes of licenses. We have one of the most advanced visual field tester available. We use the Medmont M700 perimeter. This test gives us a full threshold evaluation of the peripheral vision as well as binocular status and is relatively easy to perform. We also routinely use th Zeiss/ Welch Allyn FDT which is an an excellent screening device and is the most sensitive device to pick up early glaucomatous loss. 

Digital Retinal Imaging

The Advanced New Method of Examining Your Eye Health We are committed to providing our patients with the highest standard of eye care available. We vaue the importance of good vision and encourage our patients to maintain good vision by keeping their eyes healthy. Thus, we have invested in a high resolution retinal camera as an essential part of your thorough eye examination. This non-invasive test takes an image of the retina (the innermost lining at the back of your eyes) using a flash of light and a high magnified lens. This image is then stored on our database and analyzed using a computer software to check for any eye disease (such as macular degeneration or glaucoma among others). People who have healthy eyes, with no family history or concerns area still advised to get this test as it serves as a baseline image where we can monitor changes over time. Vision is arguably our most precious sense and not something to be taken for granted. We understand you have choices when it comes to who you trust with your eyes. Our promise to you, our patient, is that we will provide the most comprehensive testing to ensure you maintain good vision through healthy eyes. We invested in the use of state of the art technology in eye care and eye wear to ensure you are satisfied with your testing and prescription. Above all, we strive to provide a premium eye care experience by educating you on your eye health and making you feel welcome and serving you for all your eye care needs for years to come.


The art and science of measuring one’s eyeglass and contact lens prescription. We use a variety of techniques to arrive at a precise measurement. The first part is an auto-refractor: a computer which gives us an automated approximation of your prescription. We use a Huvitz auto-phoropter which also gives us aberrometry data (measure of e eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly. Very few clinics actually use this data. We also employ retinoscopy, which is an optical (manual) method of measuring the power of the eye. Subjective refraction is then performed. This is the test which most people recognize as part of the eye exam, where the doctor asks which lens is better, 1 or 2? This test is still necessary, since it gives you the opportunity to make sure that your prescription will feel comfortable since vision is more and more discovered to be a psycho-physical sense.

Insurance & Payments

We are pleased to accept most vision care plans as well as cash, debit, visa and mastercard. As a reminder, children 19 years and under and seniors 65 and over are covered annually through their ohip card. Diabetics and patients with certain eye conditions or diseases are also covered annually.

Contact Lens Fitting

Get the latest in contact lens technology to maximize comfort and vision.

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Designer Eye Wear

Select eyewear that suits your look, lifestyle and visual needs with exciting offers.

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Eye Health Examinations

Vision testing, evaluation of eye movement, eye health assessment and much more.

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Digital Retinal Imaging

A detailed scan of your retina examining optic nerve, macula and blood vessels.

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Laser Eye Sugery Consultation

Complimentary consultation to determine if you are a candidate for laser eye surgery.

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Diabetic Eye Care

A dilated eye examination to evaluate the health of your eyes and can protect your vision.

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Ocular Emergencies

Treatment of hazy vision, flashes of light or many spots in vision, red and painful eyes etc.

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Dry Eye Diseases

Dry eye disease affects up to 30% of the population. We can help you manage it.

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Visual Field Testing

Test to identify visual field loss for early detection of glaucoma and other disorders.

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Eyewear Repairs

We repair or adjust eyewear in our in-house lab even for glasses not purchased from us.

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